Value objects


PSX uses in several places value objects. To unify the look and feel of those value objects we have a simple specification which describes the behaviour.


  • The class consists of multiple components. A component must be either a scalar value or another value object

  • The class must be immutable so it must be not possible to modify the state of a value object once it was created

  • The class must have a constructor with two behaviours. If only one argument was passed to the constructor this value represents the string representation of the value object and must be parsed into its components. If more arguments are provided they must be assigned to the fitting components. It must be possible to pass every component to the constructor. I.e. the following two objects are equal:

    $mediaType = new MediaType('text/plain; charset=UTF-8');
    $mediaType = new MediaType('text', 'plain', ['charset' => 'UTF-8']);
  • The class must have a method toString() which returns a string which contains the complete state of the object. The following operation should be always true:

    $uri = new Uri('/foo');
    $uri->toString() === (new Uri($uri->toString()))->toString();

    We use a custom toString() method since the exception handling inside the __toString() method is really bad. Nevertheless each object can have the magic __toString() method which calls the toString() method

  • The class must have a protected property and getter method for each component

    $mediaType = new MediaType('text/plain; charset=UTF-8');
  • The class may have static factory methods fromXXX to create the object from other values

    $time = Time::fromDateTime(new \DateTime())
  • The class may have withXXX methods to create a new value object replacing only the given component

    $uri = new Uri('/test?foo=bar');
    $uri = $uri->withPath('/foo');
  • The value object should provide a protected method parse() which parses the string representation. When parsing the value must be cast to a string so that in case it is another value object it returns its string representation. If there are components which need extra processing provide protected methods parseXXX() which are called inside the parse method. This has the advantage that value objects which extend this class can override these methods so they can choose whether they want to parse theses values or not


The following value object implementations exist:

  • PSX\Uri\Uri
  • PSX\Uri\Url
  • PSX\Uri\Urn
  • PSX\Http\MediaType
  • PSX\Http\Cookie
  • PSX\DateTime\Date
  • PSX\DateTime\Time
  • PSX\DateTime\DateTime